As Somalia transitions from more than three decades of conflict to partial stability in many parts of the country, there is an opportunity for sustainable development. The national stocks of natural resources (fertile soil, livestock, fisheries, minerals, oil and gas) hold opportunities not only to improve living standards and food security for the population of nearly 16 million, but also to provide a platform for advancing humancapacity in trades, skills and technologies.
However, decades of conflict, recurrent droughts and floods that have internally displaced millions, coupled with weak governance have undermined Somalia’s human capital and state effectiveness. This has compromised delivery of basic social services such as healthcare and education, impeded legitimate revenue collection efforts and allowed corruption and illegal taxation throughout the country. As a result, the private sector and economic growth have been severely underdeveloped. In the absence of strong coordination and effective investment in capacity development, any current gains or hopes for future reform initiatives are in danger of reversal. Pervasive human capacity gaps present a threat to ownership, scaling up and the sustainability of efforts and results.